Preventative Eye Care

These nutritional supplements have been proven to be beneficial for your well being if you have any of the following diseases: Dry eye, cataract, macula degeneration, glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy patients. These Nutritional supplements have proven to not only be superior for the eye, but for the whole body. For your convenience, the Michigan Eyecare Institute has given you the option of purchasing these nutritional supplements right from our office. Select one of the following eye care products to bring up more information!


  • Avantrx
  • BioTears
  • EpiCor
  • Macula Complete
  • Oculair
  • ZoOmega-3
  • Zeaxanthin

Advantage Avantrx!

Professional Strength Avantrx differs completely from other gastric-bulking formulas because their expansion ratios are typically much smaller than the totally bio-inert acrylic polymer used in Avantrx. In other products, particles smaller than 0.5mm are released into the small bowel or are absorbed very quickly, which makes the satiety potential of other gastric-bulking products no more effective than a glass of water.

The key to the efficacy of Avantrx is that its microbead structure forms large particles (avg. 1.5mm), which are retained by the stomach for hours, thereby modulating the release of gastric hormones like Grehlin that send the message to the brain that one is hungry, and enhancing an earlier release of gastric hormones like Leptin, causing one to feel full sooner.

The ingredient in Avantrx is an ultra-pure superabsorbent polyacrylic hydrogel with the ability to absorb up to 1000 times its weight in water. In the stomach, the microbeads released from the professional strength 750 mg capsule are about the size of grains of sugar. They are activated with water to gently expand within a few minutes to the size of grains of rice, filling the stomach with a soft, slippery mass, the volume of a large apple. After a few hours, the slippery gel-like substance safely passes through the GI tract, and is eliminated naturally--without any known harmful side effects.




The microbeads are made from a hydrogel polymer specifically developed for use as a temporary pre-meal gastric bulking agent. Polyacrylic hydrogels have been generally recognized as safe for many years and have been used in a wide variety of applications approved by the FDA for ingestion.

The polymer is totally bio-inert, a water-swelling slippery gel-like version of the acrylic polymers used in intraocular lenses.

Always consult your doctor before starting a weight loss or weight management program.

Recommended dosage: Professional Strength Avantrx must always be taken with at least 8 oz of water. It works best when taken with a large glass of water, one to three hours before a meal. If you don't achieve a sense of fullness when taking one Avantrx capsule, increase the dosage to two capsules with an additional 8 oz of water. Everyone is different, so Avantrx works slightly differently for each individual. A potent full-spectrum (vitamin/mineral/antioxidant) multiple is always recommended when on a reduced-calorie diet. We recommend Biosyntrx Oculair, or Macula Complete.

Precautions: Do not take more than 2 Avantrx capsules before any meal or more than six capsules a day. Diabetics, pregnant and nursing mothers, children under 18, morbidly obese people, or those with any form of pre-existing gastrointestinal disease or medical condition should consult with their physician before use.

Overdosage: Do not induce vomiting. Call your physician immediately.

Avantrx is manufactured in a GMP facility to meet the same standards for purity required for pharmacuetical products. Avantrx is Certified Kosher and BSE Free.

These statements have not been evaluated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

BioTears

BioTears is a patented next-generation dietary supplement from the inventors of HydroEye. It is designed to systemically address the root inflammatory cause and effects of dry eye syndrome. It's suggested in peer-reviewed literature that these specific nutrients support normal production of lubricants in other affected parts of the body, such as mucous membranes of the mouth and vagina, and interior body surfaces such as joints and synovial membranes. BioTears addresses the structure and function of the tear film, which is vital for visual clarity. BioTears Oral GelCaps contain the optimal blend of Omega 3 and Omega 6 essentials fatty acids, plus all the nutrient co-factors suggested to enhance the metabolic conversion associated with the tear-specific series one anti-inflammatory prostaglandin, PGE1.

BioTears Oral GelCaps include nutrients that are suggested to appropriately inhibit the essential fatty acid arachidonic acid production of the COX2 enzyme, the pro-inflammatory prostaglandin PGE2, and Interleukin Il-6.

BioTears Oral GelCaps include nutrients that are suggested to modulate goblet cell/mucin production in both the stimulated and unstimulated tear, the lacrimal gland aqueous output, as well as the meibomian gland oil output, which is vital to the prevention of evaporative dry eyes.

BioTears Oral GelCaps also contain APO-Lactoferrin, which is suggested to inhibit the growth of both viral and bacterial pathogens in the three-layer tear film.

We recommend you scroll up and visit the BioTears Scientific Rationale link for more information. The manufacturing link is at the bottom of every page.

Recommended dosage: Four oral capsules per-day; two with each morning and evening meal.

Precautions: Coumadin patients should consult their primary care physician when taking this formulation. Pregnant or lactating women, or individuals with medical conditions should also consult a physician before using. These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, or treat any disease.



Condition Overview


Dry eyes, often referred to as Dry Eye Syndrome, is the most frequent patient complaint to eye doctors. Lack of successful treatment is the primary reason patients change eye doctors.

On Living With Dry Eyes: From the English teacher's blog
Who threw the sand in my face?
What streetfight
Was I in last night?
I remember a book
I am waiting for the forty-four days of rain.
I am waiting for my trial in the desert to end.
Who gave the nameless their names?



Pathology of the three-layer tear film:

The Mucus Layer - the closest layer to the corneal epithelium. It is produced by the conjunctival goblet cells, and is absorbed by the corneal surface glycoproteins, creating a hydrophilic surface. Mucin deficiency, or mucopolysaccharide abnormalities, can lead to poor wetting or glycation of the corneal surface with subsequent desiccation and epithelial damage, even in the presence of adequate aqueous tear production.

The Aqueous Layer - the layer between the mucous and lipid layers. It is secreted by the lacrimal gland and incorporates all water-soluble components of the tear film. It also comprises 90% of the tear thickness. The aqueous layer provides moisture and supplies oxygen and important nutrients to the cornea.

The Lipid Layer - the most superficial layer. It is produced by the Meibomiam glands with contributions from the glands of Zeis and Moll of the eye lids. The secretion is an oily material, which is fluid at body temperature and retards evaporation of the aqueous layer and lowers surface tension, thereby allowing the tear-film to adhere to the eye’s surface. Androgen receptors are located in both the lacrimal and meibomian glands. A decrease in circulating androgen hormones can result in loss of the oil laye, exacerbating the evaporative tear loss.

The Blink Reflex renews the tear film by delivering aqueous and lipid to the tear film and sweeping away debris. The normal blink interval is about 5 seconds under normal conditions. The tear film is typically stable for about 10 seconds. Tears are normally evaporated or forced out through the nasolacrimal ducts in the inner corner of the eyes on blinking.



The Root Causes of Dry Eye Syndrome:

Many different things cause dry eye syndrome. The normal aging of tear glands, as well as extended use of contact lens, environmental pollutants, prescription drugs, refractive surgery, auto immune diseases, nutrient deficiencies and other disorders can cause disruption in the tear production and retention process.

Symptoms:

The typical symptoms of the dry eye syndrome include dryness, grittiness, irritation, difficulty reading for long periods of time, burning and even the apparent contradiction of excessive tearing or watering. In extreme cases of dry eye, patients may become unusually sensitive to light, experience severe eye pain, and start to notice diminished vision. Successful treatment may be needed to avoid permanent damage.

Blepharitis can often cause dry eye symptoms due to inflammation of the eyelid margins, which is caused by a bacterial infection (Staphylococci). This condition can compromise the quality of the tear film causing tears to evaporate more quickly. The bacteria produce waste material that can cause a mild toxic reaction leading to chronic red, irritated eyes.

Extended Contact Lens Wear can result in dry eye from corneal oxygen and nutrient deficiency. Protein build-up on contact lens can produce a breeding ground for bacterial growth and surface roughness, further contributing to inflammatory changes. Some contact lens solutions contain preservatives that can also cause chemical irritation of the corneal surface and result in dry eye symptoms.

LASIK Surgery temporarily disrupts the ocular surface/lacrimal gland unit. Also, during LASIK, roughly 60-70% of the superficial nerve fibers in the cornea are severed, which reduces sensation and affects aqueous tear production and delays wound healing. With compromised sensation, the blink rate can slow to the point that the tear film breaks up before the next blink can reconstitute. Though this condition usually clears up after a few months, it may result in mild to severe dry eye syndrome for several months after surgery.

Diseases that may be associated with dry eyes include Rheumatoid Arthritis, Sjogrens Syndrome, Diabetes, Asthma, Thyroid disease, Lupus, and possibly Glaucoma.

Age - Dry eye syndrome affects 75% of people over age 65. Tear volume decreases from age 18 as much as 60% by age 65.

Hormonal changes cause decreased tear production brought on by pregnancy, lactation, menstruation, and menopause.

Medications that can cause dry eyes are antibiotics, blood pressure medications, antidepressants, diuretics, over-the-counter vasoconstrictors such as Visine, antihistamines, birth control pills, appetite suppressants, and ulcer medications.

Computer Use causes most people to blink less frequently (about 7 times per minute vs. a normal rate of around 22 times/minute). This leads to increased evaporation along with the fatigue and eye-strain associated with staring at a computer monitor. Any task requiring a great deal of concentration can result in decreased blink rate.

The conventional treatment for dry eyes is to treat the symptoms not the cause:

Artificial Tears: Some form of over-the-counter artificial tears is usually recommended. Although they may provide temporary relief, they merely palliate the symptoms. Worse, the preservatives can aggravate the condition, and can even kill corneal cells. Tears that promise “get the red out”

Punctal Occlusion: Punctal occlusion is a procedure used to help dry eye patients by closing the tear drainage canals with silicone plugs, which keep most of the fluid from leaving the surface of the eye. This may provide long-term relief.

BioTears Scientific Rationale

Artificial tears flush out debris, dilute substances trapped in the tear film, and increase tear clearance. They do not, however, provide all the factors critical for the maintenance and repair of the ocular surface, nor do they optomize tear film structure and function, which is necessary for improved visual acuity.

  • BioTears Oral Gel Caps has been clinically suggested to improve the tear chemistry and the health of the ocular surface on over 75% of the dry eye patients studied.
  • BioTears Oral Gel Caps has been clinically suggested, through slit lamp observation, rose bengal staining, and lisemine green staining to improve the health of the ocular surface.
  • BioTears Oral Gel Caps has been clinically suggested to extend tear break-up time (TBUT).
  • BioTears Oral Gel Caps has been clinically suggested to increase aqueous output through the use of both ZoneQucik and Schrimers tests.
  • BioTears Oral Gel Caps has been clinically suggested to increase tear lactoferrin levels with the Touch Tear MicroAssay System.
  • BioTears has been clinically suggested to decrease tear film inflammatory markers, IL-1 and IL-6.


Thousands of satisfied BioTears customers strongly suggest, with every monthly repeat order, the very real subjective data that further proves product efficacy. The scientists at Biosyntrx have discovered a unique way to address many of the underlying inflammatory processes associated with dry eye syndrome. Oral administration of specific omega 6 essential fatty acids that contain sufficient amounts of gamma-linolenic-acid (GLA) are suggested to stimulate the natural production of tear-specific anti-inflammatory series one prostaglandins (PGE1). We use Black Currant Seed Oil as our source of omega 6 GLA because it is more stable than either Borage Oil or Evening Primrose Oil. We do not use Flax Seed Oil because it is the most unstable of the essential fatty acid oils, and it does not contain GLA. Flax stability issues keep it from easily converting to GLA, which it must do to produce tear-specific anti-inflammatory PGE1.(1-3) Clinical studies have suggested that the nutrient co-factors included in BioTears Oral Gel Caps may restore normal production of lubricants in the eyes and other affected parts of the body, such as mucous membranes of the mouth and vagina, and interior body surfaces such as joints and synovial membranes. (4)

In developing a tear-specific formula for oral administration, Biosyntrx included the nutrient co-factors suggested necessary to address dry eye syndrome by physiologic rather than pharmacological means. These ingredients are designed to work synergistically rather than individually, and are suggested in published scientific literature to effectively address the inflammatory process responsible for most dry eye syndrome, as well as enhancing and restoring function to the glands involved in all three layers of the tear film. (5-11)

Mechanism of Action:
Omega 6 fatty acids are suggested to metabolize to the site-specific anti-inflammatory ecosinoid, prostaglandin E1 (PGE1). These particular prostaglandins are suggested in peer-reviewed published literature to reduce ocular surface inflammation, as well as reduce the inflammatory process associated with meibomitis and reduced lacrimal gland aqueous output.

Omega 6 fatty acids convert to PGE1 via the linoleic-acid (LA) to gamma-linolenic-acid (GLA) to dihomo-gamma-linolenic-acid (DGLA) to the series one prostaglandins (PGE1). To help ensure this conversion, we included the nutrient co-factors, vitamins A, C, B6, and magnesium. The delta-six-desaturase (D6D) enzyme necessary for this conversion is too easily disrupted by alcohol, aging, smoking, elevated cholesterol levels, and environmental factors without these additional nutrient co-factors, which are also suggested to modulate goblet cell production and neurotransmitter blink response.

Pharmaceutical grade cod liver oil, as a source of Omega 3 EPA/DHA is germane to the formulation. It serves as a metabolic gateway boost to the downstream conversion of the Omega 3 to the anti-inflammatory PGE3, while also preventing inappropriate Omega 6 arachidonic acid cleavage via the delta-5-destaurase enzyme (D5D). (12-13) Vitamin E, specifically gamma tocopherols, is suggested in peer-reviewed literature to prevent oxidation by stabilizing the EFAs, and inhibiting COX2 enzyme activity that promotes inflammatory response. (14)

Curcumin is suggested in peer-reviewed literature to appropriately block Omega 6 and Omega 3 fatty acids from metabolizing to the pro-inflammatory PGE2 and IL1. (15)

Background: Curcumin is a natural COX2 inhibitor with similar chemical properties to ibuprofens Motrin and Advil (NSAIDS). The difference is Curcumin does not inhibit production of the COX1 enzyme that is necessary to protect the stomach lining. NASIDS can cause hemorrhage and have been responsible for a number of deaths. The first sign of an adverse response can be severe gastric bleeding.

Vitamin C, as ascorbic acid and fat-soluble absorbyl palmitate, is suggested to best modulate prostaglandin (PGE1) synthesis due to the extended half-life of the fat-soluble vitamin C over water-soluble ascorbic acid. This Vitamin C combination is also suggested in peer-reviewed literature to enhance the production of IgE concentrates in tears, the first line of basophil and mast cell defense against invading pathogens and allergens that frequently cause dry eye symptoms. (16)

Lactoferrin is suggested in peer-reviewed literature to increase the level of iron binding proteins to better inhibit viral and bacterial infections and to balance other tear lipocalins (family of proteins that transport small hydrophobic molecules), which modulate the surface tension of the tear film and affect the comfort of the contact lens wearer. Lactoferrin taken orally appears to survive absorption in the stomach by converting to a very small molecule called lactoferricin which can easily find its way into secretory tissue including the eyes. (17-24)

Background: Lactoferrin is produced in the tear film by neutrophils that constitute the "first line of defense" against infection. Neutrophil apoptosis (programmed cell death) signals the macrophage to clean up debris from wound sites, including surgically induced wounds (LASIK).

BioTears Oral GelCaps are designed to help inhibit the LASIK induced dry eye by supporting post-surgical wound healing response, enhancing lacrimal and meibomian gland output, as well as enhance the post-op acetylcholine neurotransmitter blink response. (25-28)

Know Your EpiCor!

Caveat emptor - Let the buyer beware! Some "discount" marketers are reported to be selling diluted (cut) EpiCor as pure. Biosyntrx presents pure EpiCor as a 90 capsule (three month supply) to best assure product efficacy and consumer compliance.

The extremely low incidence of plant employee health problems in a 63-year-old Iowa company, Diamond V® Mills, Inc., coupled with the minimal increases in company health premiums over the years, led researchers to look for potential human health applications of Diamond V’s propriety yeast culture designed to keep cattle healthy and increase milk production. Embria Health Sciences™, a division of Diamond V, spent more than $1,000,000 to develop a product specifically designed for humans, complete with safety and efficacy studies, before bringing EpiCor to the nutraceutical market.

EpiCor is manufactured from a safe, nutrient-dense form of the species of yeast called Saccharomyces cerevisiae through a proprietary multi-stage fermentation and drying process.

  • A variety of macronutrients: lipids, organic acids, complex carbohydrates, including beta glucan, which stimulates macrophage (immune cell) phagocyte activity.
  • Eleven (11) micronutrient minerals associated with production of nucleic acid DNA and RNA.
  • The entire complex of B vitamins.
  • Phytosterols and phenolics plant-based antioxidants associated with extremely high levels of intracellular and extra cellular activity (ORAC value higher than blueberries).

Immune System and Eye Disease

Ocular inflammation can produce extensive damage to innocent bystander cells leading to vision loss and blindness. Fortunately, the eye possesses multiple strategies to help control immune-mediated inflammation, a phenomenon known as immune privilege. Nevertheless, virtually all severe or chronic diseases have, to a greater or lesser degree, an element of immune dysfunction that is central to the disease process.

Scientific literature now links many age-related degenerative diseases of the eye to an autoimmune inflammatory response to external and internal environmental conditions, including nutritional deficiencies. These responses include dry eye syndrome, macular degeneration, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, iritis and uveitis.

Immune Modulation Definition:
The process of nutritionally regulating the immune system for optimal functionality. It’s a dynamic process requiring constant support.

Genes, Nutrition and Immune System

Multipotent hemopoietic stem cells (MHSC) are stem cells found in the human bone marrow. These self-renewing cells are responsible for the formation of the immune system leukocytes (white blood cells) that defend the body against infectious disease. Proper development of theimmune system is dependent on the nutritional status of the body. This status also affects the macromolecule nucleic acids, including double helix deoxyribonucleic (DNA) and protein synthesis ribonucleic (RNA). These are the acids that signal intracellular genetic instructions responsible for disease susceptibility, including immune system responses that affect the entire body.

A properly modulated immune system sends clear instant cellular defense messages that protect the body against viral, bacterial, parasitic and fungal foreign invaders. This is particularly important, given the increased global risk of infection from one of these pathogens.

A healthy immune system is also able to distinguish between the body’s own cells: self vs. non-self. When the immune system is deficient in nutritional ammunition, it can send confusing signals that cause it to turn on itself (autoimmune response). This unleashes a torrent of inflammatory diseases, including some forms of arthritis, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, iritis, uveitis, dry eye syndrome, glaucoma and vascular disease, which contributes to macular degeneration. In other cases, a malnourished immune system responds to seemingly harmless foreign substances, resulting in mild or life threatening allergic response.

Immune System and Eye Disease
Ocular inflammation can produce extensive damage to innocent bystandter cells leading to vision loss and blindness. Fortunately, the eye possesses multiple stratefies to help control immune-immediated inflammation, a phenomenon known as immune privilege. Nevertheless, virtually all severe or chronic diseases have, to a greater or lesser degree, an element of immune dysfunction that is central to the disease process.

Scientific literature now links many age-related degenerative diseases of the eye to an autoimmune inflammatory response to external and internal environmental conditions, including nutritional deficiencies. These responses include dry eye syndrome, macular degeneration, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, uritis and uveitis.

In-Vitro Study Results:
  • Inhibited formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) when cells were challenged with hydrogen peroxide.
  • Reduced growth of E coli and C tropicallis.
  • Inhibited interferon-gamma (IFN-g) production, indicating anti-inflammatory properties. (IFN-g is secreted by overactive T cells and natural killer (NK) cells. Excessive IFN-g can precipitate an autoimmune inflammatory response.)
  • Decreased Interleukin-2 stimulation of IFN-g production.
  • Increased levels of nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB), which plays an important role in inflammation, immunity, autoimmune response, and cell adhesion, proliferation, development and death (apoptosis) by regulating the expression genes involved in these processes. (This could be particularly important when considering the pathology associated with all chronic degenerative eye disease.)
  • Modulated expression of certain adhesion molecules on human NK cells, T cells, B cells and dendrite cells, as well as induced calcium signaling. This is pivotal to cellular coordination response in tissues and organs within the whole body, including the eyes.
Human Study Results:
  • Significant increase in NK cell cytotoxic activity.
  • Changed ratio of CD8-T cells to CD4-T cells. (Manipulation of regulatory T cell populations represents an important approach to immunotherapy of a wide range of immune responses.)
  • Increased humoral B cell salivary IgA, indicating that treatment with EpiCor may be associated with development of mucosal immunity.
EpiCor Safety Testing Results
Both acute (14-day) and sub-acute (90-day) toxicology studies were performed on EpiCor.

The results:
  • Negative for oral toxicity.
  • Negative for mutagenicity (Ames Test), and for mitogenicity.
  • Free of 139 pesticides at detection limits.


Conclusions:
  • Study results indicate that EpiCor is safe, non-toxic, non-mutagenic, non-mitogenic and is pesticide free.
  • Pharmaceutical drug metabolism testing suggests no interference from the nutrients in EpiCor.
  • Stability tested for a microbiological shelf life of at least 24 months when stored at ambient temperature and humidity.
  • EpiCor has obtained generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status.
  • EpiCor study results due for 2008 peer-review publication.

General Overview of Macula Complete

Macula Complete is a premium broad-spectrum dietary supplement of vitamins, minerals and antioxidant phytochemicals designed to support optimal body and retinal function. When you take Macula Complete you do not need additional multiple vitamin supplements. Macula Complete is manufactured in a NSF GMP registered facility.

Macula Complete includes the nutrients used the three major studies on nutrition as it relates to eye health.

ARED study
Lutein Antioxidant Supplement Trial (LAST)
Phototrope Study (with the exception of Omega-3 fatty acids, which we present as a stand along product, ZoOmega-3, to ensure fatty acid stability.

These studies showed no AMD disease progression in the study participants over a one year period. We also added efficacious amounts of Alpha Lipoic Acid, CoQ10, and Acetyl-L-Carnitine which have been suggested in peer-reviewed studies to support the mitochondria, as well as to support production of cellular (ATP) energy. Macula Complete is an appropriate supplement for those AMD patients who have or those who have or continue to smoke since it includes only 500 IUs of beta-carotene as a singlet oxygen quencher, not as a source of Vitamin A. The AREDS formulation includes 25,000 IUs of beta carotene; the amount has been linked to increased risk of lung cancer in those who smoke. Recent data published in The American Journal of Epidemiology suggests that smokers who consume small amounts of natural supplemental beta carotene in combination with a wide variety of supplemental antioxidants actually have an overall lower risk of developing lung and other cancers. However, please do not view the last statement as an excuse to continue smoking. Macula Complete contains all of the nutrients included in our less potent formulation, Oculair, including the B vitamins suggested to control blood levels of homocysteine, which has been suggested to increase the risk of developing AMD, plus potent levels of the vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants suggested in recent peer-reviewed scientific literature to address cataract formation, as well as vascular related inflammatory diseases of the entire body, and other diseases of the eye, such as glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. The nutrient levels in Macula Complete do not exceed the Institute of Medicine's (IOM) safe upper limits for long-term daily consumption. Macula Complete is properly balanced with a full-spectrum of minerals, including zinc, copper and manganese, which are all three required to produce manganese super-oxide dismutase (Mn SOD), which is necessary to neutralize singlet oxygen and the super-oxide free-radicals suggested to contribute to vascular disease and degenerative diseases of the eyes, including macula degeneration. This issue is not adequately addressed in products that only include the ingredients in the ARED study formulation. Macula Complete is biochemically formulated to address hydrocarbon and xanthophyll carotenoid tissue preference, therefore it includes carefully balanced carotenoids, which facilitates the transport of 16 mg of macula pigment prefered, lutein and zeaxanthin xanthophylls to the retina. The zeaxanthin level shown on the Macula Complete supplement fact box represents the amount of supplemental zeaxanthin actually included in the formulation, not the amount though to be converted from lutein. Current label law allows manufacturers to claim zeaxanthin through conversion, which would allow Biosyntrx to claim an additional one mg of zeaxanthin. Our science team prefers to list the ingredients that are actually in the formulation. It is suggested in scientific literature that excessive amounts of the hydrocarbon carotenoid, beta-carotene, interferes with xanthophyll absorption. If taken as separate nutrients, it would be necessary to take forty-six capsules a day and to spend over $225.00 a month to equal the active ingredient nutrients included in six capsules a day of Macula Complete. The cost of Macula Complete is one quarter that amount. Recommended dosage: Take 6 capsules per day, 3 with each morning and evening meal. Precautions: This formulation contains 300 IUs of Vitamin E and may be contraindicated for patients with diagnosed retinitis pigmentosa. Pregnant and lactating women should consult their physician before taking this formulation. These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, or treat any disease.

Age related macular degeneration

Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is a degenerative condition of the macula (the central retina). It is the most common cause of vision loss in Americans age 50 and older, particularly in blue-eyed, post-menopausal females. Its prevalence increases with age.

AMD is caused by arterial damage, which decreases blood flow into the capillaries that nourish the retina and macula and deprives the sensitive retinal tissue of oxygen and nutrients it needs to function and thrive. As a result the central vision deteriorates. The macula is located at the center of the retina. The retina sends light from the eye to the brain, and the macula allows you to see fine detail.

Macular degeneration varies widely in severity. In the worst cases, ARMD causes a complete loss of central vision, making reading or driving impossible. For others, it may cause only slight distortion. Fortunately, macular degeneration does not cause total blindness since it does not affect the peripheral vision.

Macular degeneration is classified as either wet (neovascular) or dry (non-neovascular). About 10% of people who suffer from macular degeneration have wet AMD. This type occurs when new vessels form to improve the blood supply to oxygen-deprived retinal tissue. However, the new vessels are very delicate and break easily, causing bleeding and damage to surrounding tissue.

People with wet macular degeneration develop new blood vessels under the retina. This causes hemorrhage, swelling, and scar tissue. The more common form of AMD, dry macular degeneration, results in less severe, more gradual loss of vision. Macular degeneration may be caused by a variety of factors. Genetics, age, nutrition, smoking and sunlight exposure all play a role.

Several peer-reviewed studies have shown a strong link between nutrition and the development of macular degeneration. It has been scientifically demonstrated that people with diets high in fruits and vegetables (especially dark green leafy vegetables and berries) have a lower incidence of macular degeneration. The almost seven year Age Related Eye Disease (ARED) study conducted by The National Eye Institute demonstrated a 25% decrease in the progression of diagnosed macular degeneration in those people who supplemented their diets with specific minerals and antioxidants.

Scientific Rationale Supporting Macula Complete

We are very appreciative of the ARED study and its effect on the eye care professionals understanding of the relationship between nutrients and macular degeneration. However, it is noted in the body of the ARED study that 57% of the study participants were already taking antioxidant vitamins before enrolling in this study, and an additional 13% who were not taking supplements chose to take a multi-vitamin mineral supplement on top of the ARED formulation. Therefore, almost 70% of those in the trial also concurrently took an additional RDA-focused multiple. The Biosyntrx scientists believes it prudent to offer a potent multiple for the AMD patients that contains generous amounts of full-spectrum supplemental nutrients and antioxidants that addresses the genetic and degenerative aspects associated with all retina disease. Macula Complete is presented in capsule form to assure bioavailability for the older consumer. Given the vast amount of science that now supports daily intake of Omega-3 EPA and DHA, we recommend that our concentrated fish oil ZoOmega3 (300 mg EPA and 200 mg DHA per capsule) be taken with each daily dose of Macula Complete.

A large number of degenerative eye disease studies completed after the ARED study was published support the nutrient ingredients included in Macula Complete. (1-8)

Vitamin A at 3,500 IU is a combination of retinyl palmitate and natural beta-carotene. Vitamin A is necessary for night vision, wound healing, and proper immune system function. (9 -13) Three published studies now link excessive amounts of Vitamin A as retinol to hip fracture in older people. Macula Complete Vitamin A does not exceed the Institute of Medicines' current recommendation for daily consumption. It is perfectly balanced with Vitamin D. The B Complex of vitamins B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B12, Folic Acid, Biotin and Choline are perfectly balanced. Macula Complete includes one full mg of Vitamin B12 (methylcobalamin) because it has proven to be almost as absorptive as the injectable type of vitamin B12. Macula Complete provides biochemically balanced amounts of folic acid, B6 and B12 to maintain proper homocysteine levels in the average person. (14-20)

Vitamin C at 500 mg is a balanced combination of both water-soluble and fat-soluble active ingredient to ensure a constant supply of circulating vitamin C (ascorbyl palmitate). The fat-soluble C esters constantly regenerate other antioxidant vitamins at the cellular level. (21-22)

Vitamin D 1,200 IUs is necessary to properly balance Vitamin A and to prevent bone loss. There is literature that now suggests a possible approaching epidemic of vitamin D deficiency due to potent use of sun screen and decreased dairy consumption in the younger consumer, and lack of out-door activity in the older patient.(23-27)

Vitamin E at 300 IU is a balanced combination of antioxidant natural d-alpha tocopherol, and anti-inflammatory mixed tocopherols, including anti-inflammatory gamma-tocopherol. (28-30)

Full-Spectrum Minerals are perfectly balanced to provide proper bio-electrical responses at the cellular level. This is a major issue for proper enzymatic function in the human body. They include Calcium, Magnesium, Selenium, Boron, Copper, Manganese, Chromium, Vanadium, and Molybdenum, The 25 mg of zinc used in Macula Complete is chleated with monomethionine. The amino acid methionine is a low molecular weight, binding ligand proven to facilitate absorption and transport of zinc in the human body. This zinc is perfectly balanced with copper and manganese to produce intracellular super-oxide dismutase (SOD) and extracellular manganese super-oxide dismutase (MnSOD), which is necessary to neutralize singlet oxygen and super oxide free radicals. (31-39)

Carotenoids are a scientifically balanced mixture of beta and alpha carotenoids, 1 mg of lycopene, 16 mg of FloraGlo lutein plus 4 mg of pure zeaxanthin, which strengthen the macula and help prevent certain types of cancers. New science suggests that the central macula has a distinct preference for zeaxanthin.

Excessive amounts of hydrocarbon carotenoids like beta-carotene interfere with zanthophill absorption, specifically lutein and zeaxanthin. Excessive beta carotene is also linked to lung cancer and colorectal adenoma in persons who smoke, or did smoke, as well as those use alcohol. (40-48)

Phytochemical Antioxidants (anthocyandins - grape seed, bilberry and ginkgo biloba), plus lipoic acid and NAC provide potent antioxidant protection from free radical damage in the entire body and the eyes. (49-52)

Bioflavnoids, (hesperidin, quercetin, and rutin) and the amino acid, taurine, strengthen the vascular system, which plays an important role in transporting proper nutrients to every organ in the body including the eye. These nutrients also play a major role in maintaining fluid balance in the eye. (53-55)

Taurine is included to retard the progressive visual field reduction in retinitis pigmentosa and as the universal carrier of lipid soluble vitamins. (56-59) Carnosine is included to slow the progression of cellular cross-linking which causes cataracts a(60)

Mitotrophic compounds, Lipoic Acid, CoQ10 and acetyl-l-carnitine to delay brain mitochondrial decay and aging. They are also suggested to slow the progression of macular degeneration, memory loss and they boost cellular energy. (61-71)

Listed below are the ingredients and the rationale for their inclusion over and above the levels in the Biosyntrx Oculair Multiple.

Macula Complete includes 800 mcg of folic acid, one mg of vitamin B-12, as methylcobalamin, and 60 mg of vitamin B-6 to best keep homocysteine levels in check in the diagnosed AMD patient. 16 mg of FloraGlo lutein to provide extra support for the macula, extra support for breast tissue and to further help prevent UV skin damage. The ARED study formulation does not include lutein. 4 mg of zeaxanthin. New science strongly suggests a central macula preference for zeaxanthin over lutein.

30 mg additional antioxidant anthocyandins to increase intracellular vitamin C levels, improve ocular microcirculation and protect the vascular endothelium, as well as inhibit collagen destruction and decrease capillary fragility. 300 mg additional antioxidant bioflavinoids to further prevent the oxidation of LDL. Oxidized LDL plays a key role in vascular damage. Bioflavinoids work synergistically with vitamin E to protect the purified rod outer segments (ROS) and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in the eye from free-radical induced membrane lipoperoxidation and damage. Bioflavinoids also support the capillaries that feed the eye and the brain.

100 mg additional taurine Taurine is concentrated in the eye, and is essential for retinal function. It protects the eye against neurotoxins that include excessive levels of glutamate that may be responsible for the loss of ganglion cells and optic nerve damage seen in open angle glaucoma. Taurine can suppress renin and break the renin-angiotension feedback loop, resulting in lowered IOP.

110 mg additional mgs of lipoic acid to synergistically regenerate other protective antioxidant nutrients that cross the blood/brain/eye barrier. Lipoic acid, in concert with acetyl-l-carnitine increases ATP cellular energy.

30 mg of CoQ10 to regenerate circulating antioxidants and to provide nutritional support for the vascular system.

200 mg of Acetyl-L-Carnitine to increase ATP energy at the mitochondria level: Impressive amounts of research show that the most important factor in aging is the decay of the mitochondria - the organelles inside the cell that convert amino acids, fatty acids and sugars into energy. The effect is that our bodies operate at one-half to one-fourth the energy we had in our youth.

Oculair Product Information

Oculair is a potent full-spectrum multiple vitamin/mineral/antioxidant dietary supplement that supports the normal aging process. It is designed to reflect the most recent peer-reviewed nutrition science. Oculair is manufactured in a NSF GMP registered facility.

Oculair is a four capsules-per-day formulation designed to protect the entire body, including the eyes, from the damaging effects of free radicals, which are suggested to be responsible for the progression of all chronic degenerative diseases. Leading experts agree that maintaining a consistent level of a large combination of organ-specific antioxidant free radical scavengers best protects our bodies and eyes from the damaging effects of oxidative stress.

Oculair contains efficacious amounts of the full-spectrum of nutrients suggested to neutralize singlet oxygen and super oxide free radicals that damage the vascular system and the macula.

Oculair addresses the universal need to keep homocysteine levels in check by including efficacious amounts of vitamin B6, B12 and Folic Acid.

A large number of thought-leading ophthalmologist and optometris recommend Oculair to their entire patient base, including their AMD patients because this cost-effective full-spectrum formulation contains all the nutrients used in the ARED study and the Lutein Antioxidant Supplement Trial (LAST) at levels that are considered safe for long-term consumption. Oculair includes 12 mg of FloraGlo lutein and 3 mg of zeaxanthin from Roach. Recent science suggests that the central macula may have a preference for zeaxanthin over lutein. Oculair is safe for smokers and former smokers. It contains 500 IUs of natural beta carotene, which is appropriately balanced with an entire host of supportive antioxidants. Recent science suggests that supplemental beta carotene is best consumed as part of a full-spectrum multiple.

We recommend you scroll up and visit the Oculair Scientific Rationale link for more information. The Biosyntrx manufacturing link can be found at the bottom of every page.

Oculair can effectively be recommended as a less-potent 2-per-day formulation to the cost-conscious consumer, which still makes it a far more complete formulation than Centrum or Ocuvite at a similar price point.

If purchased individually, it would be necessary to take forty capsules a day and to spend over $150.00 a month to equal the active ingredient micronutrients included in four capsules of Oculair. The cost of Oculair is less than one quarter this amount.

Recommended dosage: For full 4-per-day recommended potency, take 2 capsules with each morning and evening meal.

Precautions: This formulation contains 400 IUs of Vitamin E and is contraindicated for patients with diagnosed retinitis pigmentosa. These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, or treat any disease.

Oculair Condition Overview

Life expectancy has increased, but quality of life in those extra years is proving to be dismal for most people. We die too-slow deaths from chronic degenerative processes, like stroke, heart disease, cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, arthritis, macular degeneration and the list goes on and on.

Who looks forward to extra years of suffering from diseases that could be prevented by simply not smoking, limiting alcohol, limiting sun exposure, eating properly, exercising mind and body consistently, and taking a twice-daily high-quality nutritional supplement? The goal is to live and be healthy until we die. For those who are willing to make appropriate life changes to ensure health, a full and active life does not need to start slipping away at age fifty. Every year of your life should and can be your very best.

The science team at Biosyntrx has reviewed thousands of medical and scientific studies on nutrients and their effect on health. These peer-reviewed studies appear in JAMA, New England Journal of Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine, Lancet, Review of Ophthalmology, IOVS and many other prestigious medical journals, which consistently report that oxidative stress from free radical damage is beyond any doubt the root cause of most chronic degenerative diseases. Our problems then, are not simply individual nutrient deficiencies, but rather, underlying oxidative stress from free radical damage, which can be eliminated using one's natural defenses through full-spectrum cellular nutrition. Cellular nutrition means providing the body with a complete and constant range of antioxidants, along with optimal levels (levels shown to provide health benefits in the peer-reviewed medical literature) of the supporting vitamins and minerals that work together synergistically and allow the cells to naturally determine which nutrients they need, minute by minute, to provide free radical defense from the split-second cellular damage created by such things as environmental pollution, exercise, UV damage, medications, and the normal oxidative stress that is part of every day life.

An armed brigade of synergistic antioxidant special-forces is more than capable of protecting our eyes and bodies, as well as providing intracellular toxic clean up from previous years of free radical assault, thus drastically slowing the progression of most chronic degenerative diseases.

Free radicals are highly reactive molecules that ravage the innards of cells. Free refers to the fact that these compounds are misfits, with no proper place in cellular society. Radical is the name biochemists give to an atom or molecule with an unpaired electron. Unattached free radicals bond indiscriminately with other molecules, stripping them of electrons with disastrous results, broken chromosomes, crippled enzymes, and punctured membranes. The electron-stripping process is called oxidation, and in controlled circumstances it's a vital part of ordinary cellular metabolism. In the mid-1950s, Denham Harman, a physician and chemist in the Donner Laboratory of medical physics at Berkeley, proposed that the cumulative damage wreaked by free radicals was largely responsible for the aging process. Today his free-radical theory is the most widely accepted model of aging.

Oculair Scientific Rationale

A number of studies have been published in recent peer reviewed journals suggesting those people who take a well formulated daily multiple vitamin/mineral/antioxidant supplement are far healthier than those people who do not take multiples. Individual nutrient supplements need to be balanced with the appropriate spectrum of vitamins and minerals. A well designed full-spectrum supplement can slow the progression of most all chronic degenerative diseases, including those of the eye.(1-10)

Vitamin A at 3,000 IU is a combination of retinyl palmitate and beta-carotene. Vitamin A is necessary for night vision, wound healing, and proper immune system function. (11 -12) Three published studies now link excessive amounts of Vitamin A as retinol to hip fracture in older people. Oculair Vitamin A does not exceed the Institute of Medicines' current recommendation for daily consumption. It is perfectly balanced with Vitamin D.(13-15)

The B Complex of vitamins B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B12, Folic Acid, Biotin and Choline are perfectly balanced. Oculair includes the Vitamin B12 (methylcobalamin) because it has proven to be almost as absorptive as the injectable type of vitamin B12. Oculair provides biochemically balanced amounts of folic acid, B6 and B12 to maintain proper homocysteine levels in the average person. (16-21)

Vitamin C at 500 mg is a balanced combination of both water-soluble and fat-soluble active ingredient to ensure a constant supply of circulating vitamin C (ascorbyl palmitate). The fat-soluble C esters constantly regenerate other antioxidant vitamins at the cellular level. (22-23)

Vitamin D at 800 IU is necessary to properly balance Vitamin A and to prevent bone loss. There is literature that now suggests a possible approaching epidemic of vitamin D deficiency due to potent use of sun screen and decreased dairy consumption in the younger consumer, and lack of out-door activity in the older patient.(24-27)

Vitamin E at 300 IU is a balanced combination of antioxidant natural d-alpha tocopherol, and anti-inflammatory mixed tocopherols, including anti-inflammatory gamma-tocopherol. (28)

Full-Spectrum Minerals are perfectly balanced to provide proper bio-electrical responses at the cellular level. This is a major issue for proper enzymatic function in the human body. They include Calcium, Magnesium, Selenium, Boron, Copper, Manganese, Chromium, Vanadium, and Molybdenum, The zinc used in Oculair is chleated with monomethionine. The amino acid methionine is a low molecular weight, binding ligand proven to facilitate absorption and transport of zinc in the human body. This zinc is perfectly balanced with copper and manganese to produce manganese super-oxide dismutase (MnSOD), which is necessary to neutralize singlet oxygen and super oxide free radicals. (29-34)

Carotenoids are a scientifically balanced mixture of beta and alpha carotenoids, 1 mg of lycopene, 12 mg of FloraGlo lutein plus 3 mg of zeaxanthin from Roche, which strengthen the macula and help prevent certain types of cancers. New science suggests that the central macula has a distinct preference for zeaxanthin.

Excessive amounts of hydrocarbon carotenoids like beta-carotene interfere with zanthophill absorption, specifically lutein and zeaxanthin. Excessive beta carotene is also linked to lung cancer and colorectal adenoma in persons who smoke, or did smoke, as well as those use alcohol. (35-40)

Phytochemical Antioxidants (anthocyandins - grape seed, bilberry and ginkgo biloba), plus lipoic acid and NAC provide potent antioxidant protection from free radical damage in the entire body and the eyes. (41-44)

Bioflavnoids, (hesperidin, quercetin, and rutin) and the amino acid, taurine, strengthen the vascular system, which plays an important role in transporting proper nutrients to every organ in the body including the eye. These nutrients also play a major role in maintaining fluid balance in the eye. (45-50)

Carnosine is included to slow the progression of cellular cross-linking which causes cataracts. (51)

Carnitine and Lipoic Acid are included to slow the progression of memory loss and to boost cellular energy. (52)

ZoOmega-3 Product Information

Each capsule of ZoOmega-3 contains a 50% ethyl concentrate of pure pharmaceutical-grade oil from cold water fish. It is stabilized with 5 IUs of alpha tocopheryl Vitamin E and is guaranteed to contain no discernible amount of mercury, PCBs, cholesterol or triglycerides.

ZoOmega-3 is produced through molecular distillation during the manufacturing process. Since triglycerides do not fractionate well, they are first transformed to ethyl esters and then fractionated. This assures an exceptionally clean source of Omega-3 fatty acids. If ethyl ester highly-concentrated fish oil is consumed with a meal that includes a small amount of fat, the missing TG glycerol backbone is naturally provided.

We always recommend that all fish oil capsules be consumed with a multiple that provides adequate antioxidants to address the metabolic oxidative stress associated with the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE), because it is one of the most active tissues in the body, and it includes the highest amount of Omega-3 DHA.

ZoOmega-3 includes 300 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 200 mg of docosahexanoic acid (DHA) in each 1000 mg capsule. Each bottle of ZoOmega-3 contains 60 capsules. The recommended dosage is two capsules per day for optimal health, with a full-spectrum multiple for optimal Omega-3 fatty-acid/antioxidant balance. Based on the most recent science, most doctors now recommend daily concentrated fish oil supplementation, plus a diet that also includes fresh cold water fish from clean waters once or twice a week.

The per mg cost of pure pharmaceutical-grade, 50% ethyl concentrate, ZoOmega-3 EPA and DHA from fish oil is less than one third the per mg price of the EPA and DHA included in OMACOR - the new, FDA approved, pure pharmaceutical-grade ethyl ester fish oil 90% concentrate - sold by prescription only.

ZoOmega-3 EPA/DHA is less that half the price of agressively marketed TG Omega-3s that simply provide a synthetic glycerol backbone, which can also be provided by taking fish oil with food that includes a small amount of fat.

ZoOmega-3 Condition Overview

Years of over consumption of overly processed foods (mostly junk) has made the U.S. the least healthy country in the industrialized world. Fortunately for us, science has discovered that sufficient amounts of Omega-3 EPA and DHA from cold water fish oil will help balance, or neutralize some of the effects from the oils included in ALL processed cakes, cookies, chips, crackers, muffins, bagels, donuts, rolls, most breads and all fried foods.

Scientific Rationale for ZoOmega-3

A vast amount of scientific data supports fish oil supplementation for everyone, including children, because it contains the omega-3 essential fatty acids (EFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). These long chain fatty acids are precursors to eicosanoids (site specific hormones, also referred to as signaling molecules) that reduce inflammation throughout the body including the eyes. The long chain omega-3 fatty acids, EPA and DHA can be snythesized from plant- based omega-3 fatty acid alpha-linoleic acid (ALA), but EPA and DHA synthesis from ALA is not dependable in the best of circumstances. The capacity for conversion of ALA to DHA is higher in women than men. Studies of ALA metabolism indicate that approximately only 8% of dietary ALA is converted to EPA and 0-4% is converted to DHA in healthy young men. In healthy young women, approximately 21% of dietary ALA is converted to EPA and 8% is converted to DHA. (1-2) This is particularly important information for those people who insist on using or recommending Flax Seed Oil as a source of Omega-3 fatty acids.

In a scientific statement called Fish Consumption, Fish Oil, Omega-3 Fatty Acids, and Cardiovascular Disease, the American Heart Association stated, "The EPA and DHA form of omega-3 found in fish oil can have a therapeutic role in the treatment of very high triglycerides, and both EPA and DHA have triglyceride-lowering properties." (3)

  • There is now a considerable factual basis from laboratory and clinical trials that omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil will help prevent fatal arrhythmias in animals and humans. (3)
  • EPA and DHA from fish oil is suggested in a number of studies to prevent or slow the progression of many degenerative diseases associated with elevated plasma levels of triglycerides. (3)
  • Long chain Omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil and vitamin A palmitate are suggested to slow the progression of Retinitis pigmentosa. (4)
  • Primary open-angle glaucoma patients are suggested to have reduced levels of blood EPA and DHA. (5)
  • Long chain Omega-3 fatty acids are suggested to slow the progression of of neurodegenerative and retina diseases including macula degeneration. (6-12)
  • Regulation of Gene Expression

The results of cell culture and animal studies indicate that omega-6 GLA and omega-3 fatty acids EPA /DHA can modulate the expression of a number of genes, including those involved with fatty acid metabolism and inflammation. (13-14)

Zeaxanthin Product Information

Zeaxanthin is one of the two carotenoids contained within the retina. Within the central macula, zeaxanthin is the dominat component. Zeaxanthin-4 includes four mg of zeaxanthin with 30 mg of fat soluble ascorbyl palmitate Vitamin C.

Biosyntrx is returning the value-based Zeaxanthin-4 to our product line to meet the overwhelming demands of our prescribing retinal specialist.

Zeaxanthin Condition Overview

Zeaxanthin is suggested in peer-reviewed literature to be the central macula preference over lutein. Zeaxanthin is preferentially deposited at a 2:1 ratio vs. lutein in the center of the macula. If the diet is deficient in zeaxanthin, which most diets are, the macula preference for zeaxanthin is so strong the body will attempt to convert a small amount of dietary lutein to a similar molecule called meso-zeaxanthin in an attempt to supply the eye with pigment that best protects the macula.

Scientific Rationale Behind Zeaxanthin

Scientific research has established that dietary zeaxanthin plays an essential role in protecting the retina of the eye from the damaging effects of light.

From the many carotenoids in the diet, the human retina selectively accumulates only two: zeasanthin and lutein. Their concentration is so high in the macula they are visible as a dark yellow spot called the macular pigment.

Macula pigment has been implicated as a risk factor in age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the most prevalent cause of vision loss in the elderly. Significantly lower macular pigment levels have been found in people with factors known to increase risk for AMD.

An interesting study was recently presented in an ARVO poster that suggests activation of retinal nuclear factor kappa beta (NFkB), an early event in the development of retinopathies, including diabetes-induced oxidative damage, mitochondrial super oxide and nitrative stress in the retina, may be prevented with supplemental zeaxanthin.

A Biosyntrx Editorial on Zeaxanthin and Lutein:

It's important that consumers and eye care professionals become aware that the xanthophyll carotenoids, zeaxanthin and lutein are now being included in formulations (including the AREDs2 formulation) to replace the antioxidant singlet oxygen quenching hydro-carbon carotenoid, beta-carotene. None of the new formulations are including Vitamin A, as retinyl palmitate when they remove the beta-carotene.

Beta-carotene has the ability to convert to retinol, if the vitamin A liver stores are deficient, which they are in many older people. Vitamin A deficiency is responsible for most night driving.

Unfortunately, unlike beta-carotene, zeaxanthin and lutein have almost no ability to convert to Vitamin A retinol, so the science behind the substitution is a bit flawed - since Vitamin A retinol is vital to the health of the retina, specifically the rods and cones.

The best solution: supplement with biochemically balanced amounts of beta-carotene, zeaxanthin, lutein, and vitamin A as retinyl palmitate, in a full-spectrum supplement. Additional zeaxanthin or lutein supplementation should be the decision of the consumer and his or her eye care professional.

* Further investigation of the data presented in the infamous Finnish ATBC study suggests that smokers who consume a wide variety of dietary antioxidants, including reasonable amounts of supplemental beta carotene, have a substantially lower risk of developing lung cancer.